The Minimum Wage Index: Why the GOP's Filibuster Will Hurt Workers

May 2, 2014Richard Kirsch

Opponents of a higher minimum wage claim it would have a negative impact on the economy and workers. The numbers tell a different story.

Opponents of a higher minimum wage claim it would have a negative impact on the economy and workers. The numbers tell a different story.

This week, a minority of United States senators blocked a bill to raise the federal minimum wage to $10.10 per hour from coming to a vote, overruling the 54 senators who supported the bill. If the bill had passed, it would have been only the fourth time the minimum wage was raised in the last 30 years. The Republicans who led this filibuster effort will claim a higher minimum wage would hurt the economy, but don’t let them fool you: American workers are the ones left hurting as a result of their actions. Here are the real dollars and cents of the minimum wage debate.

$7.25: The current federal minimum wage, established in 2007.

725%: The increase in CEO compensation from 1978 to 2011.

$10.86: How much the federal minimum wage would be if it had kept up with inflation over the past 40 years.

$21.72: How much the federal minimum wage would be if it had kept up with productivity since 1968.

$16.62: The hourly wage needed to meet the basic needs of an average person.

$32.19: The hourly wage needed to meet the basic needs of one adult with two children in Philadelphia.

$2.13: The federal minimum wage for tipped employees, established in 1991.

$5,915,186: Average net worth of U.S. Senators who blocked a vote on the minimum wage. 

Richard Kirsch is a Senior Fellow at the Roosevelt Institute, a Senior Adviser to USAction, and the author of Fighting for Our Health. He was National Campaign Manager of Health Care for America Now during the legislative battle to pass reform.

Image via Thinkstock

Share This

Cliven Bundy's Window into the War on the Poor

May 2, 2014Andrea Flynn

Republicans were quick to distance themselves from the Nevada rancher after his remarks about slavery, but he points to a deeper issue with conservative policy.

It’s tempting dismiss Cliven Bundy – the Nevada rancher who last week suggested that blacks were better off under slavery – as a fringe conservative unworthy of any more airtime. But his remarks provide a window into the underbelly of today’s conservative movement and are worth a closer look.

Republicans were quick to distance themselves from the Nevada rancher after his remarks about slavery, but he points to a deeper issue with conservative policy.

It’s tempting dismiss Cliven Bundy – the Nevada rancher who last week suggested that blacks were better off under slavery – as a fringe conservative unworthy of any more airtime. But his remarks provide a window into the underbelly of today’s conservative movement and are worth a closer look.

Bundy was a little known entity until earlier this month when his two-decade long refusal to pay cattle grazing fees escalated into a face off between his own armed militia and agents from the Bureau of Land Management. The episode launched him into the national spotlight and endeared him to conservatives like Senators Rand Paul and Dean Heller, and Texas Governor Rick Perry, among others.  

Bundy capitalized on his moment in the spotlight to expound on the grazing rights of his cattle, abortion, and slavery.  He suggested that government subsidies have caused “negroes” to abort their “young children” and “put their young men in jail, because they never learned how to pick cotton.” He went on: “And I've often wondered, are they better off as slaves, picking cotton and having a family life and doing things, or are they better off under government subsidy? They didn't get no more freedom. They got less freedom."

Conservatives scrambled to distance themselves from Bundy by denouncing his comments as offensive and racist. But they were rather quiet on Bundy’s characterization of the safety net as a modern form of slavery. Their silence reflects a common ideology uniting conservative politicians to the likes of Bundy, one that lays the blame for poverty squarely on the shoulders of poor people – particularly poor people of color – and the government programs meant to support them.

And it’s hard to argue that the GOP’s recent social policy proposals aren’t fueled by the same fire that propelled Bundy’s diatribe. Rand Paul has equated universal health care and government programs such as food stamps to slavery. Congressional candidates from North Carolina to Arizona have argued that entitlement programs are simply a way for government to assert power over the people. Paul Ryan, whose latest budget slashes spending for Medicaid and food stamps, has warned that the safety net is on the brink of becoming “a hammock that lulls able-bodied people to lives of dependency and complacency, that drains them of their will and their incentive to make the most of their lives.” Mike Huckabee suggested that by supporting mandated contraceptive coverage, Democrats were suggesting women needed “Uncle Sugar” to control their “libidos or reproductive system.”

These notions have motivated conservatives' strategic dismantling of the social safety net. Cuts to food stamps, with more to come should Paul Ryan have his way. Refusal to participate in Medicaid expansion, leaving more than 3 million low-income people uninsured. Rejection of the minimum wage increase. Opposition to extending federal unemployment benefits. Repudiation of equal pay measures. The imposition of funding cuts and regulations that have shuttered women’s health clinics across the country. And a government shutdown spurred by opposition to the ACA, specifically the law’s contraceptive mandate.

Who bears the greatest burden of these actions? Poor women, particularly women of color, who have long been blamed for perpetuating the cycle of poverty. Bundy and conservative politicians alike rely on historic notions of poor women being lulled to complacency by government subsidies. Those notions – in addition to being racist and classist – are simply incorrect. The majority of subsidy recipients work, but don’t make enough to support themselves or their families. As of 2011, 70 percent of low-income families and half of all poor families were working, but research suggests that nearly one-third of all working families do not make enough money to meet basic needs.

Republican cuts to government subsidies will only further erode the economic security of American families. Instead of laying blame – indeed, punishment – on poor women, we should bolster the foundation on which they stand. The Roosevelt Institute recently released a report that made the case for economic policies that would support working families: raising the minimum wage; expanding the earned income tax credit; instituting paid sick and family leave; and strengthening the right to organize; among others.

As my colleague Ellen Chesler and I recently argued, all of these recommendations are necessary but will be meaningless if women are not able to make free and fully informed decisions about their reproductive health, including planning the timing and size of their families. As such we must expand the nation’s family planning program, push for all states to expand Medicaid, and tear down the other policy barriers that prevent low-income women from accessing care.

Conservative leaders are desperate to convince the poor that social safety net programs are the chains binding them to poverty, thereby legitimizing the destruction of the very system built to lift up America’s poor families. Perhaps we should thank Bundy for using such ugly terms to shed light on the conservative substitute for the war on poverty: a war against the poor.

Andrea Flynn is a Fellow at the Roosevelt Institute. Follow her on Twitter @dreaflynn.

Image via Thinkstock

Share This

Daily Digest - May 2: What Piketty Tells Us About the Power of Big Thinkers

May 2, 2014Tim Price

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

We Read Seven Thomas Piketty Think-Pieces For You (The Brian Lehrer Show)

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

We Read Seven Thomas Piketty Think-Pieces For You (The Brian Lehrer Show)

Roosevelt Institute Fellow Mike Konczal joins Brian Lehrer to explore some notable responses to Capital in the 21st Century, from the Financial Times to Esquire to Mike's own piece in the Boston Review.

Poll: Americans feel system is 'stacked against' them (Now with Alex Wagner)

Roosevelt Institute Fellow Dorian Warren talks to Alex Wagner and Heather McGhee about the fight for a living wage, and notes that progressives are succeeding at the local level even when the federal government is unresponsive.

The Tech Deficit & Living in Afghanistan (The Weekly Wonk Podcast)

Roosevelt Institute Fellow Susan Crawford, Fuzz Hogan, and Dan Tangherlini discuss the lack of tech expertise in the public sector and how to build a culture that makes government work more appealing. The segment begins at 12:24.

Seattle Mayor Says He Struck a Deal for a $15 Minimum Wage (WaPo)

The deal requires large businesses in the city to raise the minimum wage in three years, reports Niraj Chokshi, but allows small businesses seven years to comply. The City Council will take up the bill next week.

  • Roosevelt Take: Roosevelt Institute President and CEO Felicia Wong delivered the closing remarks at the mayor's recent symposium, where she said calls for a higher minimum wage were calls for democracy.

Why Economics Failed (NYT)

During the Great Recession and its aftermath, writes Paul Krugman, leaders ignored the textbook macroeconomics that could have restored full employment and prevented so much suffering.

Can We Have More Jobs and Less Work? (In These Times)

Jessica Stites speaks to progressive thinkers who call for seemingly opposite approaches to making life better for waged workers in today's economy: full employment, and less work with a universal basic income.

Why Poverty Is Still Miserable, Even if Everybody Can Own an Awesome Television (Slate)

Consumer goods like TVs and cell phones are cheaper than ever, writes Jordan Weissmann, but for low-income families, essentials like health care and education are getting further and further out of reach.

New on Next New Deal

Good News for Progressive Economics: Big Thinkers Like Piketty Are Back in Vogue

Roosevelt Institute President and CEO Felicia Wong writes that Thomas Piketty's success is no fluke. He and other progressive thinkers have redefined the debate around inequality with the power of their ideas.

Share This

Daily Digest - May 1: Why Won't Washington Listen to Workers?

May 1, 2014Rachel Goldfarb

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

America's Workforce Radio (WERE 1490 AM)

Roosevelt Institute Senior Fellow Richard Kirsch joins Ed Ferenc to discuss how organized labor has used its power to ensure a fair deal for the middle class. Richard's segment begins at 15:55.

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

America's Workforce Radio (WERE 1490 AM)

Roosevelt Institute Senior Fellow Richard Kirsch joins Ed Ferenc to discuss how organized labor has used its power to ensure a fair deal for the middle class. Richard's segment begins at 15:55.

Republican-Led Filibuster Blocks Minimum Wage Bill in Senate (NYT)

Jeremy W. Peters reports on yesterday's filibuster, which killed the proposed $10.10 minimum wage increase. Republicans claim they're protecting a weak economy, but Democrats say the problem is poverty wages.

Why the Minimum Wage Vote Failed Today (PolicyShop)

Heather McGee ties the minimum wage filibuster to campaign finance. The wealthiest Americans have a very different opinion on the minimum wage than others, and they're who Congress hears from most.

Why Economic Growth Ground to a Halt Last Quarter (Vox)

The harsh winter was probably a cause of the slowest economic growth since the fourth quarter of 2012, says Danielle Kurtzleben, but this early estimate of GDP is still subject to revision.

Fed to Scale Back Bond Purchases by Another $10 Billion (WaPo)

Ylan Q. Mui reports that despite the news about slow economic growth, the Federal Reserve continues to demonstrate confidence in the recovery by tapering its stimulus program.

Paul Ryan Won’t Let Poor People Testify At Hearing About Poverty (ThinkProgress)

Yesterday's hearing wasn't the first time that advocacy groups were turned away from testifying at one of Ryan's hearings, reports Bryce Covert. Experts may study poverty, but they usually aren't experiencing it themselves.

Share This

Daily Digest - April 30: Piketty Puts the Rich Under the Microscope

Apr 30, 2014Rachel Goldfarb

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Studying the Rich (Boston Review)

In his review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st Century, Roosevelt Institute Fellow Mike Konczal says the wealthy worry about their place in society because they're no longer just a model of success: they're a research question to study.

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Studying the Rich (Boston Review)

In his review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the 21st Century, Roosevelt Institute Fellow Mike Konczal says the wealthy worry about their place in society because they're no longer just a model of success: they're a research question to study.

Fight Over Minimum Wage Hike Comes to a Head in the Senate (CBS News)

Rebecca Kaplan reports that after months of delays, a bill to raise the minimum wage to $10.10 an hour will finally reach the Senate today. If the GOP filibusters as expected, the bill will be short-lived.

Stop Worrying and Enjoy Rising Wages (NYT)

Jared Bernstein calls on the Fed to allow wages to rise without worrying too much about inflation. There's no real evidence that inflation is rising too fast, but there are plenty of reasons to celebrate wage growth.

Why Americans Are Moving Less: New Jobs Aren't Worth It (Atlantic Cities)

The financial benefits of changing jobs have diminished, according to one new study, and Richard Florida reports that this could be the key to understanding the decline in interstate moves.

Sorry Conservatives — America’s Mobility Problem is Real (MSNBC)

Timothy Noah counters the typical conservative claims that social mobility is strong in the U.S. He points out that intergenerational shifts provide far more useful data than individuals' lifetime earnings.

New on Next New Deal

Post Office Piles on Shift to Low Wage Economy with Staples Deal

Roosevelt Institute Senior Fellow Richard Kirsch says that the expansion of mini-post offices in Staples is indicative of the U.S. economy's overall shift toward low-wage jobs since the Great Recession.

Doesn't All Work Deserve Dignity?

Roosevelt Institute | Campus Network National Operations Strategist Lydia Bowers uses a subway ad about food delivery as a reminder of President Roosevelt's call for a living wage and leisure time for all workers.

Share This

Doesn't All Work Deserve Dignity?

Apr 29, 2014Lydia Bowers

A subway ad provides a reminder of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's second bill of rights, which called for a living wage and access to leisure.

A subway ad provides a reminder of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's second bill of rights, which called for a living wage and access to leisure.

I recently saw an advertisement for Grubhub on the New York City subway. For the unfamiliar, Grubhub is a food delivery website used to place orders online. Grubhub focuses its ads on creative reasons you should order delivery tonight from “You refer to your oven as Manhattan Mini Storage” to “Your friends in the Midwest share photos of their kids. You share photos of dinner”. Grubhub has purchased enough ad space in the NYC subway system to make their ads fixtures of NYC commutes.

This ad was different. “Sure, you could go out for dinner. And walk in the snow. Uphill. Both ways. Someone else can do it for you! Order In. You Deserve It.” The case for why you should order delivery tonight is still there (it’s cold, it's uphill!) but there’s more. Pay someone else to deal with that unpleasantness, you deserve it! In our new society, where 1% of the population controls more wealth than the bottom 80% combined, dignity comes from money and, more importantly, what that money can pay others to do for you.

Am I making too much of one ad? Possibly – but it’s emblematic of widespread and growing issues. Look at recent examples of fast food restaurants underpaying their employees or denying them benefits while concurrently paying CEOs obese incomes. Look at Apple, Google, Intel and Adobe being sued by their employees for colluding to keep wages low and maximize corporate profits. The idea that a fair day's work equals a fair day's pay is eroding at every level of our society, except for those controlling it all at the very top. We have become a society where we are sorted into those who deserve fair pay, benefits, and empathy, and those who don’t. And at the end of a long day, the deserving few deserve to have someone being paid exploitative wages (the average delivery worker in NYC is paid minimum wage at $8.00 an hour or roughly $15,300 a year) bring sushi to their front door.

Am I advocating the end of delivery? Of course not. What I’m asking for is a restoration of the basic social contract, where we agree as a society to value all our workers and their right to happiness. This is not a new idea. In his 1944 State of the Union address Franklin Delano Roosevelt advocated for a second bill of rights. He argued that the political rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights had “proved inadequate to assure us equality in the purist of happiness.” In this new version, Americans would have the right to employment with a living wage, housing and food, and clothing and leisure, among other things.

What an incredible concept. That beyond simply feeding and housing ourselves, Americans should have the right to leisure – to enjoyment and happiness. That while there will always be delivery people and fast food workers, we all deserve to pay rent off the earnings of a single full-time job. But this is not an issue only impacting minimum wage workers in America. The Apple collusion case referenced above and recent reports that the American middle class is no longer the richest in the world indicate a pervasive mindset has taken root in America, that only those at the very top deserve anything at all. The rest of us can fight for what they leave behind.

The solution? Restore the basic social contract and raise minimum wage. Rather than continuing to argue for the failed policies that wrongly argue equality trickles from the top down, acknowledge that wealth flows when we all do better. Raising our most vulnerable workers above the barely-scraping-by level of living betters our society as a whole, from both economic and social justice standpoints. The recent increase in the New York state minimum wage and political will at the national level for a federal increase are good first steps. But until politics prove otherwise, I will continue to overreact at billboards that reinforce the concept that any workers in our society are "undeserving."

Lydia Bowers is the Roosevelt Institute | Campus Network's National Operations Strategist.

Share This

Daily Digest - April 29: Paul Ryan's Anti-Poverty Theater

Apr 29, 2014Rachel Goldfarb

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

The New Paul Ryan Is All About Heart (NY Mag)

Though Paul Ryan tries to portray himself as the Republican who cares about the poor, his policies cut funding from anti-poverty programs, writes Jonathan Chait.

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

The New Paul Ryan Is All About Heart (NY Mag)

Though Paul Ryan tries to portray himself as the Republican who cares about the poor, his policies cut funding from anti-poverty programs, writes Jonathan Chait.

  • Roosevelt Take: Roosevelt Institute Fellow Mike Konczal points out that Ryan doesn't just cut funding from the poor; he buys into the fantasy that charity alone could solve poverty.

Trucking Used to Be a Ticket to the Middle Class. Now It’s Just Another Low-Wage Job. (WaPo)

Lydia DePillis explains how the (potentially illegal) reclassification of truck drivers as independent contractors has changed the industry. With all the costs shifting onto the drivers, earnings have dropped.

Hawaii Set to Become Third State to Hike Minimum Wage to $10.10 (MSNBC)

Hawaii will follow in the footsteps of Connecticut and Maryland, reports Ned Resnikoff. The state is also giving a big boost to its tipped workers, whose wages will be calculated by far more favorable rules.

The Adjunct Revolt: How Poor Professors Are Fighting Back (The Atlantic)

Elizabeth Segran looks at adjunct professor organizing, which has grown tremendously. It's not just about money; adjuncts complain that it is impossible for them to properly teach under this system.

The Real Reason Conservatives Oppose Renewing Unemployment Insurance (TNR)

Conservatives are asking for overwhelming proof that the long-term unemployed suffer without extended unemployment insurance, says Danny Vinik, because they just don't want to spend the money.

Get Rid of Job Killing Tax Extenders; Pay For the Rest (Working Economics)

Thomas L. Hungerford points out House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Dave Camp's hypocrisy: he requires budget offsets for unemployment insurance, but not for more expensive tax breaks.

What Problem Is Privatizing Fannie and Freddie Meant to Solve? (HuffPo)

Dean Baker sees no reason to privatize Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac right now, since they are performing well. But if we must, government should get out of mortgage-backed securities entirely.

Share This

Daily Digest - April 24: Legal Challenges Are Changing the Intern Economy

Apr 24, 2014Rachel Goldfarb

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Colleges, Employers Rethink Internship Policies (WSJ)

Rachel Feintzeig and Melissa Korn report that while unpaid internship lawsuits work through the courts, many companies are changing their programs by adding pay or eliminating internships altogether.

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Colleges, Employers Rethink Internship Policies (WSJ)

Rachel Feintzeig and Melissa Korn report that while unpaid internship lawsuits work through the courts, many companies are changing their programs by adding pay or eliminating internships altogether.

Losing Their Unemployment Benefits Didn't Help These People Find Work (HuffPo)

Sam Stein and Arthur Delaney find that without long-term unemployment insurance, which Congress failed to extend in December, workers' job searches didn't change, but their ability to pay the bills did.

Your Government Owes You a Job (The Nation)

Raúl Carrillo calls for a job guarantee as a matter of justice and economic security for all. He says such a program would have similar costs to current anti-poverty programs, but provide more opportunities.

Here’s Why This City’s Businesses Love Its Paid Sick Days Law (ThinkProgress)

Bryce Covert looks at a new audit of Seattle's paid sick leave law, which went into effect in September 2012. People are happy: costs were lower than expected, and business, wage, and job growth were all up.

The Rich Live Longer: So How Much Money 'Buys' 1 More Year of Life? (The Atlantic)

Derek Thompson uses data on life expectancy and income to determine the cost of an extra year of life. He says the actual numbers here are less important than the fact that inequality has life-and-death costs.

Politicians from the Hungriest Counties Voted to Cut Food Stamps (MSNBC)

The congressmen, both Democrats, claim to have voted for the recent Farm Bill that cut food stamps in some states as a compromise on larger cuts, says Ned Resnikoff, but the GOP strategy will keep chipping away at the program.

F.C.C., in a Shift, Backs Fast Lanes for Web Traffic (NYT)

The Federal Communications Commission announced new proposed rules that allow companies to pay Internet service providers for faster access to their content, reports Edward Wyatt. Some call this the end of net neutrality.

Share This

Daily Digest - April 22: Tax Reform Can Close the Gulf Between CEOs and Workers

Apr 22, 2014Rachel Goldfarb

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Raising Taxes on Corporations that Pay Their CEOs Royally and Treat Their Workers Like Serfs (Robert Reich)

Robert Reich explains a proposed bill in California that would incentivize lower executive pay by tying corporate tax rates to the ratio of CEO pay to typical workers' pay.

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Raising Taxes on Corporations that Pay Their CEOs Royally and Treat Their Workers Like Serfs (Robert Reich)

Robert Reich explains a proposed bill in California that would incentivize lower executive pay by tying corporate tax rates to the ratio of CEO pay to typical workers' pay.

Justice Stevens Suggests Solution for ‘Giant Step in the Wrong Direction’ (NYT)

Adam Liptak speaks with retired Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, who is calling for a constitutional amendment to overturn Citizens United and allow reasonable limits on campaign finance.

  • Roosevelt Take: Roosevelt Institute | Campus Network Student Board of Advisors Chair Jeff Raines explains why McCutcheon v. FEC makes big money's power over politics even worse.

A Chance to Remake the Fed (TAP)

With two open slots on the Federal Reserve, David Dayen suggests that progressives should support regulators who will serve as Main Street's voice on monetary policy.

Union Will Keep Fighting To Organize Volkswagen Workers (ThinkProgress)

While the United Auto Workers have dropped their appeal of the recent failed union election in Chattanooga, TN, Bryce Covert reports that the union plans to continue organizing at that Volkswagen plant.

UConn Graduate Assistants First To Unionize In State (Hartford Courant)

Kathleen Megan reports that the graduate assistants will be represented by the Graduate Employee Union/United Auto Workers. Graduate assistants have organized on over 60 campuses across the country.

‘Jobs vs. the Environment’: How to Counter This Divisive Big Lie (The Nation)

Jeremy Brecher argues that a "Green New Deal" could put people to work rebuilding the country's infrastructure to protect the environment, ending the supposed conflict between environmental movements and labor.

Not Born Rich? Out of Luck (MSNBC)

Chris Hayes interviews Thomas Piketty about his new book, Capital in the 21st Century, and the trends that have led to rising concentration of wealth in the United States and around the world.

Share This

Daily Digest - April 21: In Minimum Wage Fight, Localities May Have Maximum Impact

Apr 21, 2014Rachel Goldfarb

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Minimum Wage Debate Goes Local (San Francisco Chronicle)

Roosevelt Institute Fellow Annette Bernhardt and Ken Jacobs consider why the minimum wage debate has such momentum at a local level. They see this as a return to states and cities being laboratories of policy innovation.

Click here to receive the Daily Digest via email.

Minimum Wage Debate Goes Local (San Francisco Chronicle)

Roosevelt Institute Fellow Annette Bernhardt and Ken Jacobs consider why the minimum wage debate has such momentum at a local level. They see this as a return to states and cities being laboratories of policy innovation.

The Link Between One Website and Hate Crimes (Melissa Harris Perry)

In a discussion on domestic terror and hate, Roosevelt Institute Fellow Dorian Warren suggests that the way we live, segregated by race and class, makes it even harder for Americans to embrace difference.

The Biggest Predictor of How Long You’ll Be Unemployed Is When You Lose Your Job (Five Thirty Eight)

Ben Casselman finds that the unemployment rate at the time when a worker loses her job is the strongest indicator of whether she will end up among the long-term unemployed.

  • Roosevelt Take: Roosevelt Institute Fellow Mike Konczal builds on this data to explain why the long-term unemployed aren't necessarily weak employees.

Student Debt Holds Back Many Would-Be Home Buyers (LA Times)

The share of first-time home buyers has dropped. Tim Logan ties that to the vast increase in student loans over the past decade, which hinders would-be buyers from getting mortgages.

How Payday Lenders Prey Upon the Poor — and the Courts Don’t Help (NYT)

Since AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, which limited class action lawsuits, people trapped in cycles of predatory payday lending have even fewer routes out, writes Emily Bazelon.

Beyond the Laffer Curve — The Case for Confiscatory Taxation (Vox)

Matt Yglesias notes that many of our taxes aim at changing behavior, not increasing revenue. Perhaps higher taxes on inheritances or very big salaries could discourage the economic activity that promotes inequality.

Share This

Pages